Org-remark User Manual

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Org-remark User Manual

This manual is for Org-remark version 1.0.x.

Last updated: 24 April 2022.

Org-remark lets you highlight and annotate any text file with using Org mode.

Copyright © 2021-2022 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts being “A GNU Manual,” and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License.”

(a) The FSF’s Back-Cover Text is: “You have the freedom to copy and modify this GNU manual.”

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1 Installation

This package is available on:

GNU ELPA should be already set up in your Emacs by default. If you wish to add GNU-devel ELPA, simply add its URL to package-archives like this:

(add-to-list 'package-archives
             '("gnu-devel" . "") :append)

After installation, we suggest you put the setup below in your configuration.

(require 'org-remark-global-tracking)
(org-remark-global-tracking-mode +1)

Unless you explicitly load org during Emacs initialization, we suggest to defer loading org-remark (thus there is no (require 'org-remark) in the example above). This is because it will also pull in org, which can slow down initialization. You can control the timing of loading org-remark by autoloading some commands in a similar way with the example keybindings below.

Below are example keybindings you might like to consider:

;; Key-bind `org-remark-mark' to global-map so that you can call it
;; globally before the library is loaded.

(define-key global-map (kbd "C-c n m") #'org-remark-mark)

;; The rest of keybidings are done only on loading `org-remark'
(with-eval-after-load 'org-remark
  (define-key org-remark-mode-map (kbd "C-c n o") #'org-remark-open)
  (define-key org-remark-mode-map (kbd "C-c n ]") #'org-remark-view-next)
  (define-key org-remark-mode-map (kbd "C-c n [") #'org-remark-view-prev)
  (define-key org-remark-mode-map (kbd "C-c n r") #'org-remark-remove))

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2 Getting Started

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2.1 Highlighting and Annotating

Once you have installed and set it up (Installation), Org-remark is simple to use. Select a part of text and call M-x org-remark-mark to highlight it. You will see the selected text gets highlighted.

The menu bar item “Org-remark” is available when you turn on org-remark-mode. It helps you discover Org-remark’s main commands. If you use Emacs version 28 or newer, a context menu is also available by right-clicking your mouse. Turn on the Emacs built-in context-menu-mode to enable the context menu.

To display the marginal notes for the highlight you have just marked, place your cursor on the highlight and call M-x org-remark-open or M-x org-remark-view. This will display a new buffer to the left of the current buffer you are editing. The open command takes the cursor to the marginal notes buffer for you to edit notes; whereas the view command keeps the cursor in the current buffer only to display the marginal notes. Both commands narrow the marginal notes file to the entry for the highlight under the cursor. The marginal notes file is a normal Org file. Edit your notes just as you would do with any other Org files and save the buffer.

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2.2 Navigating from One Highlight to Another

After you have added a couple of highlights in the text, you can move through the highlights easily. Use org-remark-view-next and org-remark-view-prev to browse the marginal notes as you move from one highlight to another. They display the marginal notes on the side-window by default. Or use org-remark-next and org-remark-prev if you simply want to move to the next/previous highlight without displaying marginal notes for them.

To make navigation easy, you can use define the same “prefix key” to Org-remark commands like this:

The C-c n part is the prefix key common to all of them. If you set the keybindings like this, you can use C-c n ] once to view the next highlight and keep pressing a single key ] or [ to browse through the next/previous highlights. After you have reached the one you like to act on, press o to open it, r or d to remove/delete it.

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2.3 Create Your Own Highlighter Pens

Org-remark has a default highlighter pen function, and comes with a set of two additional pens by default:


default highlighter pen


yellow highlight with “important” category in the marginal notes entry


wavy red underline with “review” category in the marginal notes entry and “Review this” in tool-tips

Org-remark lets you create your own custom pen functions with org-remark-create. Use the yellow and red line pens as examples, and create your own. For how to do it, How to Create Custom Highlighter Pens.

This is all you need to get started. For more detail, refer to the rest of this user manual, especially Usage and Customizing sections. There is more to the commands introduced in this section and more ways in which you can customize Org-remark.

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3 Usage

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3.1 How to Create Custom Highlighter Pens

org-remark-create is a macro that lets create your own custom pen functions. Org-remark comes with two additional pens that are created by default. Use them as examples to learn how to create your own.

(org-remark-create "red-line"
                   '(:underline (:color "dark red" :style wave))
                   '(CATEGORY "review" help-echo "Review this"))
(org-remark-create "yellow"
                   '(:underline "gold" :background "lemon chiffon")
                   '(CATEGORY "important"))
Macro: org-remark-create label &optional face properties

Create and register new highlighter pen functions. The newly created pen function will be registered to variable org-remark-available-pens. It is used by org-remark-change as a selection list.

LABEL is the name of the highlighter and mandatory. The function will be named org-remark-mark-LABEL.

The highlighter pen function will apply FACE to the selected region. FACE can be an anonymous face. When FACE is nil, this macro uses the default face org-remark-highlighter.

PROPERTIES is a plist of pairs of a symbol and value. Each highlighted text region will have a corresponding Org headline in the notes file, and it can have additional properties in the property drawer from the highlighter pen. To do this, prefix property names with “‘org-remark-’” or use “‘CATEGORY’”.

NOTE: Don’t use ‘category’ (all lowercase, symbol) as a property – it’s a special one for text properties. If you use it, the value also need to be a symbol; otherwise, you will get an error. You can use ‘CATEGORY’ (all uppercase, symbol), which will result in adding ‘CATEGORY’ with the value in the property drawer in marginal notes Org files.

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3.2 How to Automatically Turn On Highlights after Re-starting Emacs

It is recommended that org-remark-global-tracking-mode be turned on as part of your Emacs initialization. This should be done before you start adding highlights in any file.

Once you have added highlights to some files, quit Emacs, and re-start it, active org-remark-global-tracking-mode will automatically turn on org-remark-mode and load the highlights from your previous sessions for the files being globally tracked.

Without this global minor mode, you would need to remember to activate org-remark-mode for each file where you add highlights and annotation. This is often unpractical.

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3.3 How to Manage Marginal Notes

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3.3.1 Marginal Notes File

When you mark a part of text with a highlighter pen function, Org-remark will automatically create a marginal notes file. By default, it will be named and created in the same directory as the file you are editing (How to Change Where Marginal Notes File is Saved ;Customizing, org-remark-notes-file-name).

The important thing to note is that Org-remark uses following properties in the property drawer of the headline to remember the highlights:

Essentially, the marginal notes file is a database in the plain text with using Org mode. As a plain text database, you can easily edit these properties manually if necessary. You can directly edit the marginal notes file as a normal Org file.

The marginal notes file stores highlights and notes like this below; it is designed to organize highlights and notes for multiple files and multiple highlights.

* File 1
** Highlight 1 in File 1
** Highlight 2 in File 1
* File 2
** Highlight 1 in File 2

You can leave the marginal notes file as it is without writing any notes. In this case, the entries in marginal notes file simply save the locations of your highlighted text. After you quit Emacs, re-start it, and visit the same source file, Org-remark uses this information to highlight the text again.

In addition to the properties above that Org-remark reserves for itself, you can add your own custom properties and CATEGORY property. Use “org-remark-” as the prefix to the property names (or “CATEGORY”, which is the only exception), and Org-remark put them to the property drawer of highlight’s headline entry in the marginal notes buffer. Define the custom properties in your own custom pen functions (for how to create your own pens, How to Create Custom Highlighter Pens).

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3.3.2 ‘*marginal-notes*’ Buffer

When you display the marginal notes with org-remark-view or org-remark-open for a given highlight, Org-remark creates a cloned indirect buffer visiting the marginal notes file. By default, it is a dedicated side-window opened to the left part of the current frame, and it is named ‘*marginal notes*’. You can change the behavior of display-buffer function and the name of the buffer (Customizing).

Org-remark displays the marginal notes buffer narrowed to the highlight the cursor is on.

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3.3.3 How to Change Where Marginal Notes File is Saved

The location of the marginal notes file is specified by user option org-remark-notes-file-name and its default is “”. This means the marginal notes file will reside in the same directory as the source files as a separate file.

If you use the customize command to customize org-remark-notes-file-name, you will have an option to choose a ‘File’ or ‘Function’ (customization group org-remark). The default is ‘File’ with the default “” as noted above. Use a string to specify the single file name; you can specify a relative path like the default or an absolute path.

If you would like to dynamically change the location based on the file and various different conditions, select the function as an option. The default function is org-remark-notes-file-name-function. It adds ‘’ as a suffix to the source file’s name without the extension. For example, for a file named ‘my-source-file.txt’, Org-remark will store highlights in ‘’. You can create your own function and use it.

Some examples and use cases are listed below:

Store Marginal Notes in the Source File

In order to use the source file also as the marginal notes file (storing the notes in the source file), you can set the built-in function buffer-file-name as the value of org-remark-notes-file-name. Note that you will need to ensure that the source files are an Org file.

Create a marginal notes file for each source file and store all of them in a specific location

Create a custom function that returns an absolute file name per source file, and set org-remark-notes-file-name to the function name. It might look like this:

(defun my/function ()
  (concat "~/path/to/note-files/"
          (file-name-base (org-remark-notes-file-name-function))

(setq org-remark-notes-file-name

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3.3.4 How to Use Relative or Absolute File Names for Links in Marginal Notes File

The marginal notes file stores the file name pointing back at source files. For example, a marginal notes entry for File1.txt might look like this example below.

* File 1
:org-remark-file: path/to/File1.txt
** Highlight 1 in File 1
:org-remark-link: [[file:path/to/File1.txt::14]]

The level-1 headline named “File 1” records the file name of the source file ‘path/to/File1.txt’. Similarly, the level-2 headline named “Highlight 1 in File 1” stores the link pointing back at the source file and the line number of the highlight.

As you can see, both file names use a relative file name from the marginal notes file. This is the default setting of org-remark-source-file-name.

You can customize the variable to use absolute file names, or to use a function of your choice. The function is called with a single argument: the absolute file name of source file. The default-directory is temporarily set to the directory where the marginal notes file resides. If you choose to use relative file names, the relative path is computed from default-directory.

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3.4 How to Remove and Delete Highlights

You can remove the highlight under the cursor with command ‘org-remark-remove‘. This command does not delete the corresponding entry in the marginal notes file. This is intentional; Org-roam is conservative when it deletes anything that the user might have edited.

If you wish to delete the entry and the highlight at the same time, pass a universal argument to ‘org-remark-remove‘ (e.g. by adding C-u before M-x org-remark-remove) or use org-remark-delete. org-remark-delete is identical with adding C-u to org-remark-remove.

The delete function will prompt for confirmation if it detects any notes present in the corresponding entry for the highlight in question in the marginal notes buffer.

Command org-remark-remove

Remove the highlight at point. It will remove the highlight and the properties from the marginal notes file, but will keep the headline and annotations. This is to ensure to keep any notes you might have written intact. You can let this command DELETE the entire heading subtree for the highlight along with the annotations you have written, by passing a universal argument with C-u. If you have done so by error, you could still undo it in the marginal notes buffer, but not from within the current buffer as adding and removing overlays are not part of the undo tree.

Command org-remark-delete

Delete the highlight at POINT and marginal notes for it. This function will prompt for confirmation if there is any notes present in the marginal notes buffer. When the marginal notes buffer is not displayed in the current frame, it will be temporarily displayed together with the prompt for the user to see the notes. If there is no notes, this function will not prompt for confirmation and will remove the highlight and deletes the entry in the marginal notes buffer. This command is identical with passing a universal argument to ‘org-remark-remove’.

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3.5 Other Commands

Command org-remark-toggle

Toggle showing/hiding of highlights in current buffer. If you would like to hide/show the highlights in the current buffer, it is recommended to use this command instead of org-remark-mode. This command only affects the display of the highlights and their locations are still kept tracked. Toggling off org-remark-mode stops this tracking completely, which will likely result in inconsistency between the marginal notes file and the current source buffer.

Command org-remark-change

Change the highlight at point to one by another pen. This command will show you a list of available pens to choose from.

To navigate through highlights in the current buffer, you can use org-remark-view-next / org-remark-view-prev or the following pair of commands. The former moves your cursor and displays the marginal notes buffer; the latter only moves your cursor.

Command org-remark-next

Move to the next highlight, if any. If there is none below the point but there is a highlight in the buffer, cycle back to the first one. After the point has moved to the next highlight, this command lets you move further by re-entering only the last letter like this example: ‘C-n ] ] ] ] ]’ (assuming this command is bound to C-n ])

Command org-remark-prev

Move to the previous highlight, if any.

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4 Customizing

Org-remark’s user options are available in the customization group org-remark.

Face: org-remark-highlighter

Default face for org-remark-mark

Option: org-remark-create-default-pen-set

When non-nil, Org-remark creates default pen set. Set to nil if you prefer for it not to.

Option: org-remark-notes-file-name

Name of the file where we store highlights and marginal notes. It can be either a string or function. If it is a string, it should be a file name to the marginal notes file. The default is ‘’. The default will result in one marginal notes file per directory. Ensure that it is an Org file. If it is a function, the default function is org-remark-notes-file-name-function. It returns a file name like this: ‘’ by adding ‘’ as a suffix to the file name without the extension.

Option: org-remark-notes-display-buffer-action

Buffer display action that Org-remark uses to open marginal notes buffer.

Option: org-remark-notes-buffer-name

Buffer name of the marginal notes buffer. org-remark-open and org-remark-visit create an indirect clone buffer with this name.

Option: org-remark-source-file-name

Function that returns the file name to point back at the source file. The function is called with a single argument: the absolute file name of source file. The ‘default-directory’ is temporarily set to the directory where the marginal notes file resides. This means that when the ‘Relative file name’ option is selected, the source file name recorded in the marginal notes file will be relative to it.

Option: org-remark-use-org-id

When non-nil, Org-remark adds an Org-ID link to marginal notes. The link points at the relevant Org-ID in the source file. Org-remark does not create this ID, which needs to be added manually or some other function to either the headline or file.

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5 Known Limitations

No export together with the source file

There is no out-of-the-box feature to export marginal notes together with the source file. Nevertheless, the marginal notes is a normal Org file, thus if the source file is also an Org file, you could use the built-in ‘include’ feature, for example, to include relevant parts of the marginal notes into the export output.

Copy & pasting loses highlights

Overlays are not part of the kill; thus cannot be yanked.

Undo highlight does not undo it

Overlays are not part of the undo list; you cannot undo highlighting. Use org-remark-remove or org-remark-delete commands instead.

Moving source files and marginal notes files

Moving your files and remark file to another directory does not update the source paths and file names stored in the marginal notes file. One way to keep the links between the source files and marginal notes files is to use relative file names with org-remark-source-file-name (default).

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6 Credits

To create this package, I was inspired by the following packages. I did not copy any part of them, but borrowed some ideas from them – e.g. saving the margin notes in a separate file.


John Kitchin’s (author of Org-ref). Great UX for markers with hydra. Saves the marker info and comments directly within the Org file as Base64 encoded string. It uses overlays with using ov package.


Bastian Bechtold’s (author of Org-journal). Unique display of annotations right next to (or on top of) the text. It seems to be designed for very short annotations, and perhaps for code review (programming practice); I have seen recent issues reported when used with variable-pitch fonts (prose).


Part of Org’s contrib library. It seems to be designed to annotate a whole file in a separate Org file, rather than specific text items.

InPlaceAnnotations (ipa-mode)

It looks similar to Annotate.el above.

Transient navigation feature

To implement the transient navigation feature, I liberally copied the relevant code from a wonderful Emacs package, Binder by Paul W. Rankin (GitHub user rnkn).

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7 Contributing & Feedback

Create issues, discussion, and/or pull requests in the GitHub repository. All welcome.

Org-remark is planned to be submitted to GNU ELPA and thus copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation (FSF). This means that anyone who is making a substantive code contribution will need to “assign the copyright for your contributions to the FSF so that they can be included in GNU Emacs” (Org Mode website).

Thank you.

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Appendix A Index - Features

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C   M   O   R  
Index Entry  Section

*marginal notes* buffer: *marginal-notes*’ Buffer

Context menu: Navigating from One Highlight to Another
Custom highlighter pens: Create Your Own Highlighter Pens
Custom highlighter pens: How to Create Custom Highlighter Pens

Marginal notes file: Highlighting and Annotating
Marginal notes file: Marginal Notes File
Menu in the menu bar: Navigating from One Highlight to Another

Org-remark properties for highlights: How to Create Custom Highlighter Pens
Org-remark properties for highlights: Marginal Notes File

Relative or absolute file names pointing back at source files in marginal notes: How to Use Relative or Absolute File Names for Links in Marginal Notes File

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C   M   O   R  

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Appendix B Index - Commands

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Index Entry  Section

org-remark-change: Other Commands
org-remark-create: How to Create Custom Highlighter Pens
org-remark-delete: How to Remove and Delete Highlights
org-remark-global-tracking-mode: How to Automatically Turn On Highlights after Re-starting Emacs
org-remark-mark: Highlighting and Annotating
org-remark-mark: How to Create Custom Highlighter Pens
org-remark-mark-red-line: How to Create Custom Highlighter Pens
org-remark-mark-yellow: How to Create Custom Highlighter Pens
org-remark-mode: How to Automatically Turn On Highlights after Re-starting Emacs
org-remark-next: Other Commands
org-remark-open: Highlighting and Annotating
org-remark-prev: Other Commands
org-remark-remove: How to Remove and Delete Highlights
org-remark-toggle: Other Commands
org-remark-view: Highlighting and Annotating
org-remark-view-next: Navigating from One Highlight to Another
org-remark-view-prev: Navigating from One Highlight to Another

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Appendix C Index - User Options

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Index Entry  Section

org-remark-create-default-pen-set: Customizing
org-remark-highlighter: Customizing
org-remark-notes-buffer-name: Customizing
org-remark-notes-display-buffer-action: Customizing
org-remark-notes-file-name: How to Change Where Marginal Notes File is Saved
org-remark-notes-file-name: Customizing
org-remark-source-file-name: How to Use Relative or Absolute File Names for Links in Marginal Notes File
org-remark-source-file-name: Customizing
org-remark-use-org-id: Customizing

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Appendix D GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.3, 3 November 2008
Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

    The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

    This License is a kind of “copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

    We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.


    This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The “Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as “you”. You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

    A “Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

    A “Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

    The “Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

    The “Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

    A “Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not “Transparent” is called “Opaque”.

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    The “Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, “Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

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    The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.


    You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

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    If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

    If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

    If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

    It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.


    You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

    1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
    2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
    3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
    4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
    5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
    6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
    7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document’s license notice.
    8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
    9. Preserve the section Entitled “History”, Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled “History” in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
    10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the “History” section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
    11. For any section Entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
    12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
    13. Delete any section Entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
    14. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled “Endorsements” or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
    15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

    If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

    You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

    You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

    The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


    You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

    The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

    In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”


    You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

    You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.


    A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

    If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.


    Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

    If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.


    You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

    However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

    Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

    Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.


    The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See

    Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy’s public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.


    “Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site” (or “MMC Site”) means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A “Massive Multiauthor Collaboration” (or “MMC”) contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.

    “CC-BY-SA” means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.

    “Incorporate” means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.

    An MMC is “eligible for relicensing” if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.

    The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

  Copyright (C)  year  your name.
  Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
  or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
  with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
  Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
  Free Documentation License''.

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with…Texts.” line with this:

    with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with
    the Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts
    being list.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.